Oil & Gas News
Tuesday, 29 September 2009
Paul Brickman, Aggreko's Country Manager Russia, Talks with ROGTEC Magazine
ROGTEC: Hi Paul, please introduce yourself to our Readers.
Paul: I've been working as Aggreko's Country Manager for Russia since late 2007 when we decided that we would incorporate a legal entity here in Russia. My role involves providing support to our Russian team in terms of equipment movement, finance reporting and ensuring that all the procedures required by a major FTSE listed company are in place.
ROGTEC: How long have you been doing business in the region?
Paul: We have worked with companies based in Russia as a provider of temporary power since 2004; although this was on a foreign project basis, with our client's responsible for import and operation. In August 2008 we established OOO Aggreko Eurasia to serve the Russian market as a local company, with equipment and people all based in Russia.
ROGTEC: Do you have a specific target markets in the region?
Paul: Our principle market is the Russian Federation, with the CIS countries handled by our Middle East and Caspian teams. Our work in Russia is split between the key oil & gas markets, major manufacturing and construction support projects. Typically our customer's demand is multi-megawatt and high voltage, but we do have some smaller clients, as our product range goes down all the way to 125kVA generators. The offshore market is starting to gain real momentum in Russia and we have seen a number of new offshore enquiries in the last six months. Our experience in the North Sea and Gulf of Mexico over the last 30 years has built our reputation with major oil companies and specialist contractors alike as a professional offshore operator. This gives Aggreko a leading position with the international contractors, once again being used by the major Russian Oil & Gas companies looking to work offshore.
ROGTEC: What are your key products for the region and their benefits?
Paul: Our 20ft ISO containerized generators which range from 500-1500kVA are our key product in the RF. Aggreko operates more of this asset type than anyone else and our experience in packaging and sound attenuation is unparalleled. They are easy to move because of their compact design and easy to commission because of our control and synchronization package, standard to every machine. The quality and availability of these units is greater than anything else available today in the Russian market. Aggreko has the ability to mobilize and commission 2-200MW of temporary power anywhere in the world by virtue of our global fleet size; this gives us a tremendous competitive advantage and ability to serve our customers quickly and on a large scale.
ROGTEC: What potential is there for your products in the market?
Paul: The potential exists in a variety of areas, from industrial and commercial developments, which are struggling for grid connections, to remote oil & gas installations, through to traditional construction projects. In addition to these applications there is always the potential for disaster support should major a power sources become inoperable.
ROGTEC: How do you compare and compete with existing Russian Technology?
Paul: It's all about size and standardization really. Our fleet is so much bigger than anything else available in country, so we can respond to medium and large enquiries quickly and with the comfort of knowing that we can deliver the equipment to customer at short notice and commission with ease. Our competitors are at the mercy of the manufacturer's delivery schedules, price and specification changes; this makes judging their capital expenditure difficult and commissioning large projects at short notice technically complex or impossible. With our own manufacturing division and the world's largest fleet of standard generators, it's not something that's a problem to us.
ROGTEC: How do you see the market developing over the next 5 years in your industry sector?
Paul: We believe that the use of gas generators for large power demands will increase, not surprising given Russia's abundance of gas. Also the Russian network of power generation, transmission and distribution will become increasing frail, should investment in ageing plants continue to fall short of required targets.
ROGTEC: Do you have any new products being launched?
Paul: We will formally launch our temperature control business in the future. This allows Aggreko to create winter conditions in summer especially within industrial process environments. In peak summer months the problems caused by high ambient temperatures usually result in reduced production levels and spoilt product. Our flexible rental packages alleviate such problems, without the need for capital expenditure on assets that are only used for 2-3 months per year.
ROGTEC: Do you have any recent regional success stories?
Paul: Our business has helped various Russian companies over the last year, from 12MW at major glass manufacturer Pilkington to oil giant Lukoil testing power systems on a major offshore facility. We have provided temporary cooling to major German chocolate confectioner and temporary power at UEFA Cup games in St Petersburg. Our generators are in use in Siberia proving power for drilling and production in the oil sector. The use of temporary generators is endless…. posted by The Rogtec Team @ 15:47 0 Comments
Thursday, 3 September 2009
Holger Hartwig of Netzch Oilfield Products GMBH talks to ROGTEC Magazine
What is your favourite band and track?
Queen "These are the days of our life"
I understand that you are keen motorcyclist. What bike are you currently riding?
A customized Chopper, based on an HONDA VTX 1300
What is your favourite sport, and what team do you support?
International football, Germany of course!
What is your position in the company and how long have you held this?
I'm the Managing director of NETZSCH OILFIELD PRODUCTS GmbH, and have been since 2002. The company is a 100% daughter company of NETZSCH-Holding
How long have you been in business in Russia and the Caspian?
My first project as a young engineer was a compressor station for the gas-pipeline between Russia and Germany in 1982
What companies have you worked with in the Region?
We have worked with many big and small oil companies which have wells with heavy oil, sand or gas problems. Today we also have some good partnerships with different oil and gas institutes in Russia and Kazakhstan.
What is your most recent success in the market?
We are bringing more and more Progressing Cavity Pumps to oilfields in the region with heavy oil, bitumen, and wells with sand problems or gas.
Have you and any recent product launches for the region?
We are starting to sell modern ATEX-Drive heads, with 100% European safety standards in Russia and the Caspian. These Drive heads are already very successful in various oilfields in Europe.
What are your thoughts on the Russian oil and gas market through to the end of this year and beyond?
I think that the increase in the price of oil will continue to bring new projects online, and indeed help with the reconstruction of old wells. Without a successful and profitable oil and gas market other industries will suffer in any case; so technology implementation, the delivery of high quality products and respect for the environments are all key issues.11:49 0 Comments
Issue 18 News
Manas Petroleum Provides Kyrgyzstan Drilling Update
Manas Petroleum reports that the drilling of the second exploration well at the Huday Nazar SPC-1 (Soh license) prospect by the Kyrgyz joint venture, SPC (South Petroleum Company) is underway. Huday Nazar SPC-1 is to test tertiary-aged (Palaeogene) clastics and carbonate reservoirs between 1680 and 1835m below ground level. Projected total depth of this well is 2400m below ground level and it is expected to take 30 to 40 days to drill. Should drilling be sufficiently encouraging, testing and completion of the wells would be made following the drilling.
The Huday Nazar SPC-1 prospect was generated as a result of the processing of seismic shot in a recent 2D seismic program by SPC.
Gas flows through Ukraine tumble
Gas transit from Central Asia and Russia through Ukraine towards Europe fell 37.1% in the first seven months of this year compared to the same period a year ago. The State Statistics Committee did not give figures for the volume of gas transported through Ukrainian territory but according to last year’s statistics, 74 billion cubic metres of gas was sent through Ukraine. In the full year of 2008, some 120 billion cubic metres of gas was transited through Ukraine. Russia sends 80% of its gas exports to Europe through its southern neighbour.
Gazprom earmarks $300m for exploration work
in KyrgyzstanGazprom is set to invest $ 300m in exploration work in Kyrgyzstan over the next three years. Gazprom owns licenses for the Kugart and Eastern Mailuu-Suu IV blocks, which contain oil and gas deposits. The company signed a 25-year cooperation agreement with the Kyrgyz government in 2003. Drilling will begin in the "near future" Prime Minister Igor Chudinov was quoted as saying on June 10.
Kyrgyzstan is estimated to have gas reserves of 6 bn cm. But "the development of natural gas fields is hindered by the geologic peculiarities and insufficiently developed infrastructure," Gazprom says.
OPITO Announces New Training Programs Delivered in Kazakhstan
OPITO - The Oil & Gas Academy continues to position itself as a vitally important channel within the international oil and gas supply chain with the graduation of Kazakhstan's first trainees at international standard.
Courses were carried out by Abiroy Technical Training in Aksai who approached OPITO, the industry's focal point for skills, learning and workforce development, to help establish technical training programs which meet the specific needs of the country's oil and gas industry.
OPITO provided comprehensive coaching and practical advice to ensure the course addressed regional needs whilst adhering to international best practice.
A total of 98 trainee technicians have completed the programs which include the Petroleum Open Learning (POL) Petroleum Technology series, an internationally recognized certificate used by individuals and employers in more than 15 countries around the world to enhance technical knowledge and improve skills and performance in the workplace.
TNK-BP Reports 2009 First Half Results
TNK-BP has today reported its results for the six months ended June 30th 2009.
Mikhail Fridman, interim Chief Executive Officer
of TNK-BP, said:
"In the second quarter of 2009, TNK-BP benefited from stronger oil and gas markets with a continuation of the strong performance of the first quarter. In addition, in the first half of this year we generated 3.1% growth in our oil and gas production relative to the first half of 2008, due to first oil from greenfield projects in Verkhnechonskoye, Uvat and Kamennoye. We have also been able to reduce our cost base this year and these factors have contributed to a strong set of financial results for the first half of 2009. We are also pleased to have been able to continue to improve our safety and environmental performance with a cleaner and safer performance year on year. We have managed our cash and debt positions prudently and TNK-BP is well placed for sustained future growth through efficient production operations and focused capital investments."
Sibir Energy Announces Directorate Changes
Sibir Energy announces the appointment to its board of Messrs Dmitry Bekker, Maxim Viktorov and Andrei Martianov as non-executive directors with immediate effect. Mr Bekker is a representative of both OJSC "The Central Fuel Company" and the Government of Moscow. Messrs Viktorov and Martianov are nominees of OJSC "The Central Fuel Company" and JSC Gazprom Neft respectively. In addition, with immediate effect, Messrs William Guinness and Stuard Detmer have stood down from the board, and Mr. Detmer has stood down from his position as the CEO of the Company.
Effective immediately, Vadim Yakovlev who is currently a non-executive director has become the Chairman of the Company in succession to William Guinness and Igor Tsibelman, previously First Deputy CEO, has become the Chief Executive Officer of Sibir in place of Stuard Detmer.
Russia to start prospecting for oil in Georgia's Abkhazia
Russia's intends to prospect for oil and gas off the coast of the separatist territory of Abkhazia.
The deal signed May 27 between Rosneft and de-facto authorities in Sukhumi gives the company the right to prospect for hydrocarbons in the Abkhazian-controlled swathe of the Black Sea. Rosneft is also planning to set up a network of gas stations around Abkhazia.
Rosneft President Sergey Bogdanchikov said that his company will start drilling in 2010.
Some estimates indicate that off-shore Abkhaz fields hold up to 200 mm tons of oil.
Transneft launches construction of second stage of Baltic pipeline
Transneft launched the construction of the second stage of the Baltic Pipeline System, designed to diversify the country's oil exports.
The official ceremony of welding the first joint of pipeline was held in the Bryansk region in western Russia.
The Baltic Pipeline System-2, with an estimated cost of RUB 120-130 bn ($ 3.9-4.2 bn), will run from the Bryansk Region to the northwest Leningrad Region port of Ust-Luga with a branch going to the Kirishi oil refinery.
TNK-BP to Dry Its Gas
TNK-BP is going to build a gas processing plant in the Pokrovskoe field of the Orenburg Region with a capacity of 450 million cubic meters by 2012. This plant will allow the company to utilize almost 100% of its associated petroleum gas, but its construction will cost the company several hundred million dollars. Experts, however, justify these expenditures because the oil companies failing to meet the associated gas utilization norms will face the risk of losing their field development licenses starting from 2012.
Russian sees shrinking gas production
Gazprom has over the over the last five months produced 58 bn cm less gas than in the same period in 2008. While Gazprom's production in January was 14 % down year-on-year, the production in May dropped as much as 34.5 % compared with 2008 figures.
Turkey keeps faith with Nabucco
Turkey will stand by its commitments to the Nabucco pipeline project despite signing up for alternative developments, Energy Minister Taner Yildiz recently announced.
Russia's South Stream and the European Union-backed Nabucco projects could delay each other but they would not obstruct construction of each other, Yildiz told Reuters in an interview.
Moscow aims to build the South Stream pipeline ahead of the European Union-supported Nabucco link from the Caspian, a scheme meant to cut Europe's reliance on Russian gas.
"No matter which project is signed, including the South Stream, our determination for Nabucco will not be weakened and we stand by our commitments," Yildiz told the news agency.
$3.3bn Mangistau deal delayed
A $3.3 billion joint acquisition by Kazakh and Chinese state oil players of privately-held MangistauMunaiGaz has been delayed, according to reports. Neither a timeframe nor a reason for the delay was given by Kazakh government sources, Reuters said. The acquisition of MangistauMunaiGaz, part of a $10 billion "loan for oil" deal agreed this year, was due to be completed in July. But Kazakh state oil company KazMunaiGaz said it had yet to be finalised.
PrimeGen Energy Begins Drilling Third Timan-Pechora Well
PrimeGen Energy Corp. advises that as part of the recently announced participation agreement regarding the Company's oil and gas project in Timan-Pechora, Russia, the operator has notified PrimeGen that drilling of a third well commenced on July 31, 2009.
The third well has been titled as the "Kochmesskoye *3". As part of the accelerated drilling program, preparations are underway on the fourth well site to begin immediate drilling shortly after the completion of the third well. The first well of the project was drilled and completed in the second quarter of 2009 and resulted in setting a new production record for the field of 1,200 barrels of oil per day. The second well's average production flow has been 920 barrels of oil per day. PrimeGen expects that an additional 4 wells will be drilled during the third quarter of 2009.
KPO Recognised For Green Gas Emissions Strategy
There is little doubt that environmental protection is a central theme occupying public policy agendas across the globe. It is a common issue, not specific to one nation, one industry, one sector or one individual. But rather, it is an important and serious challenge which we all must face in some way.
Businesses operating in different sectors have different challenges, and none are more obvious then in the oil and gas sector. Today there is little doubt that man-made emissions from burning carbon intensive fossil fuels contribute to global warming. However, the global demand for energy continues to grow year on year.
As one of Kazakhstan's major oil and gas operators, Karachaganak Petroleum Operating BV (KPO) recognises it has a responsibility to minimise its emissions of greenhouse gases. In 2008 the venture, which operates one of the country's largest oil and gas condensate fields, set itself an ambitious target of one million tonnes of reductions in greenhouse gas emissions by 2012. This is equivalent to the combined emissions of some 83,000 typical households.
Since operations commenced at the giant Karachaganak field in Kazakhstan's north west in 2005, normalised greenhouse gas emissions have been reduced by some 9 percent. This achievement has been possible in spite of increasing production levels and is the result of concerted efforts year on year to reduce emissions.
More recently KPO has adopted a strategic five year health, safety and environmental programme focused on enhancing operational practices, applying Best Available Techniques to its operations, targeted capital investment and robust and verifiable data collection. KPO has also invested significant resources, both financial and human, in better understanding its impacts.
Commenting on KPO's performance, Corporate Environment Manager, Louis Jacobs said: "While we are only in our second year of the programme, we have already seen promising results. In 2008, KPO reduced its emissions by over 160,000 tonnes as a result of key projects which were implemented throughout the year. Of this there has been a sustained reduction of over 106,000 tonnes year on year."
In the programme's first year and despite the increases in production levels, KPO has already achieved 27 percent of its million tonne reduction target and, in total, has reduced greenhouse gas emissions by over 269,000 tonnes.
This is an outstanding effort and in May was acknowledged at the BG Group Chairman's Awards hosted in London. KPO received a Highly Commended from BG Group Chairman, Sir Robert Wilson, for its work on greenhouse gas reductions.
Commenting at the award ceremony, Sir Robert Wilson stated: "KPO is pursuing an ambitious greenhouse gas reduction strategy with the aim of achieving a total, cumulative reduction of one million tonnes of CO2 emissions over five years. Results to date have been impressive, indeed last year, KPO alone contributed two-thirds of BG Group's total annual reduction in greenhouse gases."
Cut energy consumption by 50% with a Grundfos solution
Being able to efficiently control the speed of a vessel's cooling pumps according to the temperature of the sea significantly reduces energy consumption and costs below deck. Grundfos' speed-controlled cooling solutions for marine applications offer savings of up to 50%.
Cooling solutions are designed to cool at a constant seawater temperature of 32 C - regardless whether the vessel is sailing around the Persian Golf or the Baltic Sea in January. Grundfos now breaks with this, offering a variable-speed alternative that is as beneficial to the environment as it is to the ship owner's economy. Reduced energy consumption equals reduced CO2 emissions and fuel costs - an increasingly important factor in every industry and one that Grundfos takes very seriously.
KBR Awarded FEED Contract by VCNG for Eastern Siberia Oil Project
KBR has been awarded a contract by Verkhnechonskneftegas (VCNG) to provide front-end engineering and design (FEED) services for the VC FFD Project located in the Eastern Siberia region of Russia.
KBR will provide FEED services for a single new build, 140,000 barrels of oil per day facility, which will be tied back via a new 85-kilometer pipeline, to the existing East Siberian Pacific Ocean (ESPO) pipeline.
The VC oil & gas field is planned to produce a plateau production of 140-kbopd from 430 production wells, and there will be 215 water injection wells. The field development will involve total 645 wells distributed over 75 well pads. The reservoir is about 1700m depth and initial reservoir pressure is about 2,250 psia, with a reservoir temperature from 12C to 20C.
GE Oil & Gas Develops Unique -60C Gas Turbine Generators for Rosneft Power Station at Vankor Oil Field
GE Oil & Gas, announces that it has designed unique gas turbine generators that can operate in temperatures up to -60°C for a power plant project at the Vankor oil field (Turukhansky district, Krasnoyarsk region) owned by Rosneft oil company. The 210 MWt gas turbine power station at the Vankor oil field will become the only complete source of power and heat used for life support and oil and gas production, as well as part of the first stage of the oil field’s launch into operation. As part of its continuing cooperation with Rosneft, GE Oil & Gas is supplying eight gas turbine generators based on MS5001PA gas turbines.
ITS opens new office Kazakhastam
ITS Group, a leading supplier of oilfield products and services to the global offshore oil and gas industry, has opened a facility in Kazakhstan to service operators in the Caspian region.
The Aktau-based facility, which opened in February 2009, has already secured work and is well placed to build on its early success and establish a presence in one of the most important oil and gas markets. The facility supplies operators with a wide range of drilling equipment on a rental or sale basis (including, but not limited to, pipe, collars, stabilizers, drilling jars, shock tools) and also offers fishing, tubular running and a variety of machine shop services delivered by highly-skilled personnel.
SMT UNVEILS KINGDOM GEOMODELING
POWERED BY JEWELSUITE™
SMT have announced its partnership with JewelSuite™, allowing SMT to incorporate the patent-pending JewelSuite™ gridding technology as a part of the new KINGDOM Geomodeling solution. With this tool, organizations can now conduct 3D geomodeling within the same application as their initial interpretation. This capability helps upstream exploration and production companies reduce cycle times and improve drilling decisions through more accurate volumetric calculations.
Commenting on the announcement, Arshad Matin, President and CEO of SMT, said, "Today, Interpretation and Modeling exist as separate silos within organizations, managed by separate teams. This dysfunctional process is akin to a sculptor having to write his design on paper and require someone else to build it. With KINGDOM Geomodeling, SMT puts the tools back in the hands of the artist. And because it is so cost effective and easy to use, now everyone can be an artist."
Commenting on the announcement, Gerard de Jager, President of JOA, said: "This is an important step for our industry. Next to the engineering domain, where the orthogonal Jewel gridding has proven superior, the partnership with SMT will integrate Seismic Interpretation. Due to the true vertical gridding method, seamless workflow integration will be achieved, leading to faster and better asset team decision making".
Launch of Polarcus Naila
The launch of Polarcus Naila took place on the 30 July 2009 at the Drydocks World - Dubai shipyard in the United Arab Emirates.
Polarcus Naila is the second vessel in the Polarcus fleet, purpose built for the high-end 3D marine seismic market and capable of towing up to 12 by 8,000m streamers. The shipbuilding contract for the vessel was signed on the 28 April 2008 and steel cutting commenced on the 8 June 2008. Like her sister ship Polarcus Nadia, launched on the 25 June 2009, Polarcus Naila incorporates many new and innovative design features ranging from the distinctive ULSTEIN X-BOW® hull to the Selective Catalytic Reduction (SCR) system, designed to maximize operational performance and minimize emissions. The sophisticated double hull design also incorporates a range of advanced safety features including a DP 2 dynamic positioning system.
Once in service, Polarcus Naila will be one of the most environmentally friendly and technologically sophisticated marine seismic vessels in the market, providing advanced 3D towed marine seismic services worldwide to the oil and gas industry.
Fit out of the vessel will continue at Drydocks World - Dubai after launch with the naming ceremony and delivery scheduled for Q4 2009. Photographs of the launch are available on the Polarcus website under Project Polarcus. posted by The Rogtec Team @ 11:26 0 Comments
Turkmen Gas - Export Strategy and Trans-Caspian Opportunities - Part 1
Special Counsel, Baker Botts (UK) LLP
Partner, Baker Botts (UK) LLP
In this two-part Article "Turkmen Gas - Export Strategy and Trans-Caspian Opportunities" Turkmenistan's historic and current gas export strategies are examined, and the opportunities for Trans-Caspian gas exports to Europe are considered. Part One of this Article provides an overview and assessment of Turkmenistan's current gas export strategy, and considers some of the competing claims for Turkmen gas.
Recent diplomatic events involving Turkmenistan and Russia, and to a lesser degree Azerbaijan and the European Union, when taken together with recent statements of Turkmen President Berdymukhamedov, suggest a sea-change in Turkmenistan's energy export strategy. Is Turkmenistan finally ready to commit to gas exports to the European market, or are we once more seeing Turkmenistan successfully playing off competing interests for its natural resources?
Whilst Azerbaijan, with the support of the US, was successful in securing a non-Russian alternative export route for its oil and gas through the Baku-Tbilisi-Ceyhan (BTC) Pipeline, and the South Caucasus Pipeline (SCP) respectively, the export of Turkmen gas through a proposed Trans-Caspian link foundered in the late 1990s. Now, however, there are renewed signs that Turkmenistan may be serious about committing to diversify its gas export options.
Turkmenistan has traditionally been a net exporter of gas. Since independence from the Soviet Union in 1991, it has, together with Caspian neighbours Kazakhstan and Azerbaijan, been the focus of sustained US and EU attention in a bid to counterbalance European dependence on Russian gas supplies. Indeed, Turkmenistan is seen by some as a potential keystone supplier of gas to Europe. Various factors have, however, conspired to maintain the gas export status quo. These factors include the proactive geopolitical and energy strategy pursued by Russia and Gazprom, failure to agree the littoral boundaries of the Caspian Sea states, continued uncertainty as to Turkmenistan’s actual recoverable gas reserves, and the difficult environment for foreign investment in Turkmenistan as a result of the idiosyncratic policies of former President Niyazov - the self-styled "Turkmenbashi" (or "Leader of Turkmens").
Limited Options versus Abundant Opportunities
Considering the historic importance of the Caspian region for hydrocarbon production, and the unconfirmed estimates of significant oil and gas reserves in Turkmenistan, Azerbaijan and Kazakhstan, the Caspian region generally (and Turkmenistan in particular) remains relatively under-explored. The principal causes of the relatively poor state of Turkmenistan's oil and gas industry, and its limited options for development, are (i) the political and economic relationship between Turkmenistan and Russia (historic and current), and (ii) at least with respect to gas, the difficulty in finding an accessible market, caused by Turkmenistan’s geographic location. It should be noted that Turkmenistan's position is not entirely unique and that these circumstances are largely also experienced by Kazakhstan and, to a lesser extent, Azerbaijan.
The Turkmen Government's own (unverified) reserves' estimates are 12 billion barrels of oil and 20 trillion cubic metres of gas, which would equate to Turkmenistan having around the fifth largest gas reserves in the world. There are two main gas producing regions in Turkmenistan: in the Eastern/Southeastern Uzbekistan and Afghan/Iran border regions, and in the West/
Caspian offshore area (see Diagram).
Hydrocarbon production is by means of Licences for Exploration and Production, and by Production Sharing Agreement (PSA). All hydrocarbon exploration and production involving foreign company participation is currently undertaken through PSAs. There are currently a small but growing number of foreign investors operating oil and gas concessions in Turkmenistan, including Dragon Oil, Petronas, Eni and CNPC. The list of foreign companies currently seeking to become involved in Turkmenistan is growing almost daily.
Exports to Russia
Currently, around two-thirds of Turkmenistan's gas is sold to Gazprom, and is exported to Russia via the Central Asia Centre Pipeline (CACP) (see Diagram). The CACP has a capacity of approximately 80 billion cubic metres (bcm) per annum, and has been constructed on a piecemeal basis from 1974. 90% of gas exported from Turkmenistan to Russia travels via the eastern branch of the CACP through Uzbekistan and Kazakhstan, where it meets with the western branch taking gas from the Caspian region north through Kazakhstan. The CACP generally, and particularly the western section, is understood to require significant modernisation, and recently suffered an explosion claimed by the Russians to be the result of the "dilapidation of the gas pipeline system". The generally poor state of these main export pipelines, together with capacity constraints in the Kazakhstan sections of the CACP, restricts Turkmenistan's current gas export opportunities to Russia.
One proposal was for a new Caspian Sea border pipeline linking Turkmenistan with Russia via Kazakhstan (the "Caspian Gas Pipeline", also known as "Prikaspiiski") to be constructed alongside the existing 10 bcm per annum onshore pipeline (the western section of CACP) which would increase export capacity on this route by an initially planned 12 bcm per annum, (see Diagram). The Prikaspiiski project was agreed between Russia, Kazakhstan and Turkmenistan in 2007, and was intended to be operational in 2010, however construction has yet to commence. Arguably, the delay can be attributed to the increased diplomatic tensions surrounding the Nabucco project, and potential Trans-Caspian export options, (to be discussed in Part Two of this Article) and may reflect a desire by Turkmenistan not to commit wholly to Russia's gas import embrace.
Turkmenistan's recent decision to open to international tender for the construction of the internal East-West gas pipeline, connecting Turkmenistan's Eastern and Caspian region gas fields caused further strain to the Turkmen-Russian relationship, and to the historic influence of Russia in the key gas development and export decisions of its neighbour. The original plan had been for Gazprom to build this pipeline and for it to tie-in to the Prikaspiiski pipeline to facilitate additional gas deliveries to Russia.
How Russia Took Control of the Gas
Western interest in Turkmen gas was relatively short-lived following the country's independence, largely as a result of Russia's ability, through national champions Gazprom, Rosneft and LUKoil, to maintain its traditional influence in the region.
Gazprom, Rosneft and LUKoil have been strong and successful players in the competition for the control of strategic oil and gas assets within the Russian zone of influence. In controlling the main gas export infrastructure, Russia's strategy has been to prevent Turkmenistan from selling its gas directly to the European market. The export relationship is chequered, including a significant transit price dispute in 1998, which resulted in gas exports to Russia being suspended. Over time the commercial terms on which Turkmenistan has been able to directly trade its own gas have changed, so that now Gazprom purchases all Turkmen gas exported via Russia at the border.
The failure of Turkmenistan and Azerbaijan to progress a Trans-Caspian Pipeline, initially proposed in 1996, is substantially attributable to Russian political opposition, as well as the unresolved status of the Caspian littoral state's offshore boundaries, a circumstance used by Russia to its advantage. It is also worth noting that the Trans-Caspian pipeline was not, at the time, in Azerbaijan's economic interests either - it being keen to ensure the viability of its own gas export project to Turkey (SCP) ahead of any project to export competing Turkmen gas.
Faced with the circumstances described above, it is unsurprising that Turkmenistan has progressed gas export projects geographically to the east and south, towards China, Iran and Pakistan, and away from the zone of Russian influence in the Caspian, Caucasus and Black Sea. Russian geopolitical influence is weaker in these alternative markets, although Gazprom at one time did seek involvement in the India/Pakistan export project, ultimately pulling out for financing reasons.
The New Challengers
The first non-Russian post Soviet-era gas exports by Turkmenistan were to Iran. Operational since 1997, the 150km pipeline from the Korpedji Field in Western Turkmenistan to Kurt Kui in Iran has an 8 bcm per annum capacity. A second 1 bcm per annum gas pipeline was put into operation in 2000 (see Diagram).
Although Iran has the world's second largest gas reserves, it is a net importer of gas and is keen to increase imports of Turkmen gas for domestic supply to its northern regions. Iran considers itself to be a natural route for Turkmenistan's gas to the European market, and continues to lobby Ashgabat for new export commitments and co-operation. Turkmen gas could be supplied to Turkey via the Iran-Turkey Pipeline (although prone to stoppage and interruption, particularly in winter months), and theoretically then onwards to Europe. Unsurprisingly, the Iranian export route is politically a high-risk option given the internal instability of that country, US and EU sanctions against Iran, and the associated pressure brought to bear on Turkey, Turkmenistan and Azerbaijan against a deepening of their energy dealings with Iran.
Pakistani and Indian Exports
The proposed 1,700 km, 27 bcm per annum Turkmenistan-Afghanistan-Pakistan-India (TAPI) gas pipeline has been long in planning and is supported by the Asian Development Bank (ADB). The project proposes that Afghanistan would off-take 2 bcm per annum with the remainder shared equally between Pakistan and India. Construction was originally scheduled to commence in 2010 with the pipeline projected to be operational by 2014; however it is unclear whether all parts of the project will be built, and to what timetable. The TAPI pipeline is supported by the US as an alternative to exports to Pakistan and India from Iran. Turkmen gas exports via TAPI would compete with Iranian and Qatari gas transported via the proposed Iran-Pakistan-India pipeline (IPI). It is hoped that TAPI and IPI would together form the core of a Southern Region Gas System.
The 7,000km Trans-Asia Gas Pipeline from Turkmenistan to China via Uzbekistan and Kazakhstan is currently nearing completion, and will eventually reach Shanghai. From 2010 Turkmenistan will export 30 bcm per annum of gas to China for thirty years, with a further 10 bcm per annum committed for export to China by Kazakhstan. By offering "near-European" gas prices and assisting Turkmenistan to finance gas field development, China is aggressively consolidating its position as a credible gas export partner, and building a sphere of influence in the Caspian region energy market in direct competition with both Russia and the European Union. China's pragmatic and decisive approach, and its deep pockets, have found favour in Turkmenistan, and as the relationship has flourished the countries have agreed a suite of co-operation agreements on energy matters, gas production and gas purchasing.
Part Two of this Article reviews the current, and changing, state of the Turkmen-Russian relationship, and assesses the likelihood of Turkmenistan committing to a Trans-Caspian gas export link to Europe11:02 0 Comments
Tuesday, 1 September 2009
Data Storage and Retrieval in Russia; ROGTEC Talks Exponential E&P Data Growth with the Industry Leaders
David Sullivan - Managing Director of Geotrace Data Integration Services Ltd
Alexander Yakovlev - Product Manager, RISC/UNIX servers and storage, Fujitsu Technology Services
Vladimir Zykov - Product Sales Specialist StorageWorks Division, HP Russia
Thomas N. Keller - President of Iron Mountain in Russia
What is the current condition of the data storage and retrieval sector in Russia? What changes are required?
David Sullivan: The storage and retrieval sector in Russia is still characterised by warehouse style storage spread across this vast nation. Over time, some organisations have transcribed the original format data into more modern and durable media (3590, 3592, LTO-4 etc.) and scanned sections and film to produce digital archives. Other organisations have created automated near-line and on-line data management systems. Russia, like its competitors, needs to move to contemporary data storage and retrieval sector focused on smaller data centres, using modern media, on-line storage and with the focus on quality and availability. More controversially, once the data is converted to the new systems and quality assured the original format data should be destroyed.
Alexander Yakovlev: Due to significant IT budget cuts and restrictions, the sales of large solutions and high-end class disk arrays dropped down in the first quarter. Resources were reallocated and some projects that initially were planned as high-end projects were downgraded to middle class systems. Data growth rates have remained the same as before the downturn, and as such sales of disk arrays in the middle class segment did not change much, and indeed even grew in SMB sector. This can be explained one hand by budget cuts, and on the other hand by significant performance and functionality enhancements of SMB disk arrays. For example, in our recently announced entry-level disk storage there are a number of hardware solutions that were previously available only in middle - and high-end segments.
Vladimir Zykov: For the most part Oil & Gas companies buy Low-end and Mid-range systems. There are some transitions to higher level Mid-Range and Hi-end models in some of the regional centers and large research facilities, accompanied by new technologies, specialized storage systems and hierarchical storage. All in all O&G is pretty much in line with current trends in storage industry.
Thomas N. Keller: Present conditions of oil and gas energy data storage are very fragmented and de centralized. There are significant amounts of energy data (with huge replacement cost and valuable commercial application) which is improperly stored, poorly catalogued, and has no back up or replacement. In short, most major energy companies do not have a centralized policy for storage of key data and an authorization system for its retrieval. It's mostly held with subcontractors and contracted providers.
The region is seeing exponential data growth across all sectors, is there a risk that future valuable data assets will be lost because of inadequate storage capacity?
David Sullivan: Russia has always placed great emphasis on the national interest value of exploration and production data. However, here, as in all other oil provinces, valuable data assets are regularly lost because of inadequate storage capacity (and techniques). The near exponential growth of E&P data in the Russian Federation will mean that more modern storage conditions, together with more technically advanced and effective data management techniques, will be mandated. Availability of appropriate quality assured data to the exploration community will be a key factor for success in the ongoing development of the Russian oil and gas business. Certainly, modern 3D surveys create much more data by volume. But these surveys use advanced, more durable media. The cost of the survey means that the client tends to take care of this valuable purchase (at least in post stack form). However, most of our knowledge of the world's hydrocarbon bearing rocks, by area and most of our understanding of the history of our oil and gas fields comes from 2D seismic surveys, traditional well data, maps and historical reports. This will be the case for many years. These are the invaluable data sources whose value is constantly denuded by inadequate data management - both in terms of the physical condition of the media and availability of the data.
Alexander Yakovlev: Even with a cut in IT budgets, a skilful management should be able to avoid the loss of critical data. On the one hand, a number of solutions for information life-cycle management and managed services, and on the other the use of cutting edge storage technologies that allow the user to store substantial volumes of information a cheaper cost. A good example of this are Nearline SAS (NL-SAS) hard drives, that give big advantages in performance and reliability of SAS interfaces and in the near future will have a capacity of 2 TB.
Vladimir Zykov: If the storage systems implementation lifecycle in companies is reduced from the current 10-12 months to 5-6 months, taking into account the arrival of new storage technologies along with bigger disk drive capacities there should be no such risks. HP already provides several storage solutions to the Russian market which combine low cost with high performance and storage volumes. Also, implementation of the Hi-End storage systems will allow for capacity reserves for some of the customers tasks.
Thomas N. Keller: Yes there is a large risk of this but we feel many of the companies are beginning to realize this and develop solutions to handle this. However, most companies have yet to make the key distinction between key "live" data and important historical data (the key difference being access speeds, and authorization levels). In many cases they are over engineering solutions which are costly and unnecessary
With large legacy systems existing in Russia, is there an urgency to modernise the solutions the operators are using?
David Sullivan: At first glance, it is much less expensive and requires far fewer resources just to preserve the status quo. To progress we need to adapt and to innovate. The large legacy systems need to be consolidated into small units with modern media and high levels of accessibility. Unfortunately, data management is often regarded as an expense rather than an opportunity. Conventional accounting techniques show only what we have spent on the storage, rent, utilities, transport etc. No account is taken of the opportunity cost of the delay in producing hydrocarbons resulting from inadequate data management. Replacing a traditional warehouse-based system with a modern and effective data management regime provides oil and gas companies with an effective, strategic tool at the core of their business. Therefore, there is a compelling and urgent need to modernise the solutions in use by Russian operators.
Alexander Yakovlev: If we compare, for example, with western markets, Russia does not have so many inherited systems. It gives us a number of advantages - customers are ready to implement modern technologies much more actively that allow a significant rise in efficency. Thanks to the virtualization of tape media we offer increased speed and performance of the back up and copy process to the tapes in very diverse environment, including back up copying from mainframes to modern LTO-4 devices.
Vladimir Zykov: There is no need to modernize such legacy systems; the system will have to be replaced instead. Legacy systems usually have no means for integration between themselves and a new IT system. Small vendors that initially provided these solutions often do not exist anymore and system support is provided by the companies own IT staff. However, many of the old systems are still in line. New systems are being bought for the new tasks. In some companies old systems are being transferred to the branch offices that do not require high storage capacities or performance, so as to maximize efficiency. Later these systems are being utilized, according with companies hardware lifecycle policies. So there is no urgency as such.
Thomas N. Keller: Not really. There is a large need to inventory the key data and categorize it according to its creation, usefulness, and access levels. Operators then have to upgrade legacy systems, as needed, rather then "across the board". Selective protection (using proper data vaults and so forth) can eliminate the need for large-scale modernization of legacy formats. Data can then be used "on demand" which results in significant cost savings. Note however that much of the older seismic data needs urgent categorization, quality control, and modernization to new formats.
What is the level of accessibility to archived data within the regions oil companies?
David Sullivan: Accessibility is entirely dependent on the system in use by the company. Generally, if the data is managed using a legacy warehouse type-environment, where original media is requested, both response times and accessibility are generally poor. This is exacerbated where the data needs extensive QC, improvement and format conversion before it is workstation ready. There are a great many data sets throughout Russia that could be regarded as highly inaccessible. Where the data owner has implemented a digitisation and re-mastering project, accessibility is improved, particularly if the system has a near- line or on-line component. Integrated digital data management systems, either in-house or using a reputable third-party system, improve matters further.
Alexander Yakovlev: At the same time with complex multilevel content storage todays market offers WORM technology (Write Once Read Many) that allows the creation of an archive on special LTO standard tapes. Therefore we have the possibility to create a tape with an unchangeable archive copy of the data in a small tape library. If we have, for example, two writing devices in the tape library we have the possibility to create one ordinary tape and one WORM tape for long-term archive. This technology has enabled the access of archived data not only from the headquarters, but also in branch offices.
Vladimir Zykov: Not every company can allow itself to store a few years of archive data online on the disk storage system. And the accessibility level for archive data is not very high. Data archiving systems are not implemented in lots of cases. It might be impossible to restore data from the archive, because there is often no archive copy at all. Usually this happens because there is no archiving process in place, or if it is present, is poorly implemented, not automated and prone to human errors.
Thomas N. Keller: In our experience it's poor or non-existent. Often the original source data resides not with the owner of the data but a sub contractor. The subcontractor does not inventory the data and has no real incentive or systems to catalogue it for its client. The real end user, the oil field specialist, often has no access or idea what resources are available to him/her. This is where the real money is made or lost.
Data protection has always been a concern - what can the operators and data centres do to ensure data security and their legal requirements?
David Sullivan: By storing data in remote physical stores and distributing interpretations across systems spread right across this vast country, we often create an environment that is susceptible to security breaches When we were designing our own system, we recognised the need to produce a system that would give data owners ultimate security over their valuable data asset, yet provide controlled and convenient access to authorised users. In addition to secure, convenient access ,it is also extremely important to automatically monitor the use of the data asset - both to ensure that there are no security breaches and to add to the knowledge of the data's provenance. The Ministry of Natural Resources, tax authorities, regional administrations and a host of others mandate regular filings relating to a wide variety of exploration activities across the entire asset life cycle. Once again, the concept of a warehouse-based store or archive is entirely inappropriate for this purpose. By migrating to an integrated digital data management system, we can produce a more effective and less expensive statutory reporting system. Digital data integration systems, not only enhance security and make short work of complying with statutory reporting obligations, they enable the data owner to manage their assets in real-time. Thus the latest digital oilfield techniques, usually only used on the most capital intensive of fields can be applied to the smallest, remotest asset, at minimum cost.
Alexander Yakovlev: As with any complex goal, the problem of data integrity and security must have complte solution on both soft and hardware level, and, probably the most importantly on organizational level. Competent use of modern entry and middle class solutions allows the user to decrease the possibility of hardware data loss to very low level. For example, in our recently announced entry level disk arrays, ETERNUS DX60/80, along with snapshots, it is possible to create full clones, internal and remote data replication. I would like to emphasize that all these functions are embedded into the entry level systems. So, if the process of back up copying and information life cycle management are organized properly, and in conjunction with modern storage functionality it is possible to build a highly reliable configuration even when using entry level systems.
Vladimir Zykov: Actually, I would class this question is a continuation of the previous one. Of course there have to be means for data backup and archiving in the company's data center. Also, IT departments have to have a data protection strategy and have to work according to the SLAs for the different types of data: operational, archives, backup, etc. At HP we can help here by providing an integrated solution for all types of customer data, along with the monitoring and management tools for the data itself and for the storage infrastructure as well.
Thomas N. Keller: There is a fine line between security and paranoia. Our strong suggestion is to benchmark with others in the industry.
In today's climate with operators looking to cut cost across all sectors of operations - describe the solutions you can offer to help them achieve this goal, especially as data management can be viewed as a spiralling cost for the owner.
David Sullivan: Silo-based data archiving belongs in the dark ages, exploration data is the very stuff hydrocarbon discoveries are made of and it is high time we recognised its importance. In fact, such projects not only assist the exploration process, the scanning, digitisation, re-mastering and re-cataloguing activities associated with their implementation drive down traditional data administration costs. Storage area is vastly reduced, outmoded media can be discarded and transport costs virtually eliminated. Also, given that traditional storage costs are annually recurring the project will go on saving money for many years to come.
Alexander Yakovlev: One of the ways of cost reduction during constant growth of stored data is the concept of managed storage services. We offer "Managed server" and "Managed storage". These solutions allow the creation of private "cloud" storage which allows the user to utilize the advantages of storage and computing supported by the cloud computing technologies, and at the same time to avoid a number of vulnerabilities inherent to this concept. Managed services will take into account all the specifics of the customer's IT infrastructure, will meet customer's business needs and will allow the system to be scalable and flexible depending on the situation.
The necessary conditions for successful integration of the managed DDC are clear definitions and service level agreements. It also important for optimization, because both a lack, or indeed excess of services can cause the system to be ineffective. Consequently, the first step is to analyze the demands and their requirement of service level agreement (SLA) including goals, roles, reaction and restore time limits. Such agreements are the basis of cooperation between the service provider and the customer's IT department. For example, SLAs of Fujitsu Technology Solutions define the components of operation (e.g. storage devices, mail servers and print servers), processes of back up copying and restoration, and the management of all IT services for the centralized network and system management platform. These clear interfaces allow the management of DDC operation fully or partly, and the customer does not lose the general understanding of the levels of quality and cost of the managed services. IT departments do not need well paid professionals in their headcount. The goal is to use the resources when they are necessary and not to pay when they are not neccesary. As a service provider we can offer a high level of flexibility to give additional advantages to our customers. Thus, a managed DDC of Fujitsu Technology Solutions gives the choice between our customers own activities and placement of DDC outside of the company providing the necessary services.
Vladimir Zykov: These are the solutions, specially developed by HP to provide high user value with low TCO. We are continuing to improve our midrange systems such as the HP StorageWorks EVA x400 series, which are, according to the Edison Group whitepaper the easiest to manage among similar class storage systems. At the beginning of this year we announced a new storage appliance, HP StorageWorks ExDS 9100, which provides exceptional storage density per sq.m. of data center floor, combined with low cost per TB of data and highly scalable performance, and delivers access to different types of data, i.e. geological, via many file access protocols: NFS, CIFS, FTP, HTTP, etc. For the remote offices and regional branches we promote inexpensive HP LeftHand P4000 SAN solutions, which are based on the iSCSI and do not require costly FC SAN implementation and staff training. As for the storage backup solutions we provide traditional tape libraries along with virtual libraries such as HP StorageWorks VLS, that allow the user to store vast amounts of data with high speed access, thanks to new deduplication technology.
Thomas N. Keller: Iron Mountain (IM) is the global leader in the storage and protection of energy data. It's all we do around the world. We are able to assess problems and outline solutions which are safe, secure, redundant, allow access control, and cost effective. We have industry specific software (and solutions), which allows companies to move data from a spiraling cost to a productive asset.
How do you see the future of the storage and retrieval sector in Russia and the CIS?
David Sullivan: Russia has always regarded exploration and production data as being important to the national interest. Consequently, it understands very well the need for secure, strategic management of these assets. As such, I expect that Russian organisations will wish to exploit the opportunities that the new technologies afford. Specifically, I see a trend for removing data from remote warehouse locations, re-mastering to modern formats and relocating to state-of-the-art integrated digital data management systems. The reduction in bulk means that these centres can often be located at the company's headquarters with a security copy stored at another secure location. Where the company is involved in operations around the world, these integrated digital data management systems can be distributed, allowing access to the data in the partner country as if it were in Moscow. In addition, I see a trend towards integrating the integrated digital data management with the wider exploration lifecycle. These modern systems need to be able to communicate with modern workstation formats and supply data to them and receive data from them rather like an automated digital librarian, recording the transaction and maintaining an audit trail of how these data have been used. These systems will also be integrated with the regulatory authorities, meeting the statutory reporting obligations of the oil and gas company.
Vladimir Zykov: Russia and CIS companies are moving in the same direction as the rest of the world. We can expect to see rapid development of SAS technologies, continuation of the FC and iSCSI SANs development. Oil & Gas companies will continue to mlargely purchase Mid-range systems that will be based more and more on the industry standard components. Hi end systems will be implemented for specific "heavy" tasks like SAP and the like.
Thomas N. Keller: Clearly the key data will be created and stored near the energy production. Therefore we will have to move our vaults, people and expertise to the regions and keep working with our customers to save them money and increase the security of their data. Further in Russia there is a strong assumption that data needs to be in house to be compliant with Russian law and internal company regulations. This is simply not true. We see this changing but it will take time and experience for companies to try and fail to manage data themselves. We see many of our clients now outsourcing "trial" parts of its data storage to IM so they can verify the process and manage costs.
What are the key issues for data storage and accessibility, in terms of workf low optimisation and maximising E&P decision making? What can you offer to overcome these issues?
David Sullivan: Accessibility is key. If explorers are unable to access data when required, the value of that data is lost. Modern exploration and production specialists need high quality, workstation-ready data on demand. The challenge is to meet this need in a cost effective manner, while ensuring the company's precious data asset remains secure. We believe passionately that the effective use of exploration and production data is at the very heart of the exploration task. We can create a real time, integrated digital management system that enables companies to make the very most of every data acquisition Rouble.
Our approach can streamline the exploration process, and deliver incredible efficiency savings. Regulators, including government and national oil companies, can ensure their data is managed strategically, ensuring that the national interest is properly served. All stakeholders can have a much more informed view of the potential of their hydrocarbon assets. We have created a suite of state-of-the-art products supported by the best people to make this happen. Our team is based in Tyumen at the heart of the Russian oil and gas business and has vast experience of this type of project.
Vladimir Zykov: Currently storage systems are used not only in the context of traditional IT infrastructure - for database data, financial systems data, but also as a storage for industrial process automation solutions such as SCADA, exploration, geological data and so on. On this base of data silos corporate data warehouses are being built that allow the user to analyze, forecast and get additional value from stored data. No company in O&G sector in Russia currently has such a solution implemented in full scale. However, everyone is moving in this direction, with different rates of success. Difficulties that occur are more administrative, such as problems in communication between departments of merged company. It may also be a technical problem because of the different and incompatible data formats. To solve this HP provides specialized solutions for the O&G industry together with our partners: Schlumberger, ROXAR, Landmark, SGG, SAP.
Thomas N. Keller: In our opinion, this means making sure the key energy data is used by the people who need it most. We so often see that data storage is a black hole where nothing ever comes out. Our solutions put data at the desktop where field people who need the access can have in within seconds. This is a complete process of identification of key data assets, storage and digitizing of key assets, and setting proper access levels for usage.
Any final comments?
David Sullivan: We encourage you to consider how this approach could benefit your organisation. Please visit us www.geotrace.com/products/tigress.html (Russian & English) or mail email@example.com for more information.
Thomas N. Keller: In addition to state of the art data vaults and data migration from older formats, we offer a multilanguage asset management system called "eSearch" which was designed with today's large-scale energy company in mind. It manages data in terms of location, description, access control, and allows full track and trace of all assets. It's scaleable and working in a number of major Russian energy companies to manage large amounts of key data. From the archive to the desktop! Find more on eSearch at: http://www.ironmountain-esearch.com/15:37 1 Comments
Multi Layer Packers and Completions
V. I. Nikishov (OAO "NK “Rosneft"), A. I. Markin, R. R. Gabdulov (OOO "RN-Yuganskneftegaz"), P. I. Slivka (OOO "RN-YufaNIPIneft")
The field development using combined methods of exploitation of layers and creating a reliable control and regulation system of processes of production of reserves with respect to every layer is one of the main postulates of mining laws and regulations during the projection of development. Therefore at present time high emphasis is placed on technologies including the use of wells with multi-packer section arrangements designed for differential injection in geological heterogeneous production facilities .
Currently existing constructions of arrangements for dual injection operations (ORZ) in wells uncovering three and more layers prevent from determination of liquid flow rate of every layer without participation of the workover crew. The injection into layers is regulated after study of geophysical data and data according to well performance for a specified period of time.
The basic idea of the submitted article is the systematisation of regulation and control of the development of multilayer fields using the ORZ system. The ultimate aim is the transition to an intelligent well which enables to regulate the working conditions of layers in real-time environment and to ensure differentiated action in separate interval or area of oil reservoir.
Basic line of improvement of multi-packer arrangements ORZ
The targeted aim can be achieved at the expense of the creation of tandem of the existing technology ORZ, use of control sensors of bottom-hole parameters (pressure p and temperature T) as well as software engineering for the calculation of liquid flow rate according to the available data of pressure decrease which is the "nervous system" of the intelligent structure .
The following refers to the improvement elements of the construction of arrangement ORZ (fig. 1):
1. Construction modification of the bottom-hole flow bean which enables to reduce the hydraulic resistance for the purpose of increase of its throughput capacity.
2. Determination of liquid flow rate based on the calculation principle of liquid according to pressure decrease and as a consequence the creation of a software product for the calculation of liquid flow rate for injection into the layer.
3. Use of geophysical sensor systems (p, T) within the tube and the annular space of the arrangement ORZ with information transfer to the surface via cable lines.
We examine one of the main improvement elements of multi-packer system of the ORZ system. As shown in practice the liquid flow rate through a flow bean of the existing construction is limited by the diameter of the axial channel. It is possible to achieve a large flow rate through the flow bean for the guarantee of the planned regime of injection capacity by enlarging the diameter (construction modifications) of the axial channel or reducing the pressure decrease at the existing construction.
Figure 1 shows comparative schemes of the arrangement ORZ in use (a) and the improved arrangement ORZ (b).
Fig. 1. Schemes of the arrangement ORZ in use (a) and the improved arrangement ORZ (b)
For analyse it is recommended to compare two versions of flow bean construction with different types of orifice instruments (SU) (table 1).
The orifice instruments in the form of Venturi tubes make it possible to increase the throughput capacity of the flow bean at the expense of the reduction of decrease in pressure by the overcoming resistance to the fluid stream. It can be accepted that the fractional decrease in pressure is 5 - 20 % for Venturi tubes generally.
In case of flow motion the friction head loss lengthwise and the overcoming local resistance is often observed at the same time. The total head loss is determined as arithmetic loss sum of these types.
The hydraulic calculation is presented for flow beans of the existing construction (in the form of a restricted channel) and in the form of Venturi tubes. Due to small sizes and high seed of the liquid stream the following assumptions can be added to the calculations:
- the existing flow bean represents an orifice plate of a wide, even lengthwise restricted part of the channel;
- the friction pressure loss is equal to zero.
The theory about the liquid flow through nozzles supposes that the average speed of the stream increases together with its restriction and the static pressure becomes less than the static pressure before the orifice plates/Venturi tubes. The pressure difference (differential pressure) becomes higher if the flow environment increases. So it can serve as flow measure [3-5]. Table 2 shows the methodology algorithm of the flow bean at differential pressure.
The use of the flow bean in arrangements ORZ is limited by the size of the flow area of 9.5 mm. The use of orifice instruments in the form of Venturi tubes under equal conditions makes it possible to increase the liquid flow rate through the flow bean up to 39%. Table 3 shows a comparative calculation of two versions of flow bean.
Employing the trail-and-error method of number values, i.e. changing the diameter of the existing flow bean it is easy to calculate the equivalent diameter (11.56 mm) of the restrictive channel which would guarantee a liquid flow rate of 659.28 m3/day. The result of the calculations is the dependence of the liquid flow rate on the differential pressure for two versions of flow bean.
Figure 2 shows that the flow bean in the form of Venturi tubes has a higher throughput capacity in comparison to the flow beans in use. Charts which are shown in figure 3 are used for the sake of simplicity of determination of the liquid flow rate for different flow bean diameters and the value of differential pressure. The throughput capacity of the flow bean does practically not depend on the production material of the orifice instruments and measuring pipe and depends largely just on the surface finish characteristics, the wear-resistant and corrosion behaviour of the materials. An alternative solution for the increase of throughput capacity for the Priobsk field is often the use of an extension pipe without a
Fig. 2. Dependence of the liquid flow rate on the differential pressure for Venturi tubes (1) and orifice plates (2)
Fig. 3. Charts for determination of the liquid flow rate through the flow bean in the form of Venturi tubes (measuring pipe diameter - 20 mm; material of SU and the measuring pipe - 40X)
borehole chamber and cap. However, the given solution is in conflict with the company specification concerning the engineering requirements on the organisation ORZ of water at the Priobsk field in the injection wells which uncovered several sites (No. P1-01 S-034 JuL-99) according to which the following tests must be carried out after the first running-in and installation of equipment in the well for the separate water injection:
Another important constituent of pressure loss in the construction of flow bean is the presence of local resistance occurring in zones of tube section changes or travelling direction of the liquid stream. This loss depends on the average speed and the cross-sectional dimensions of fluid jet, forms and sizes of the barrier, its placing in relation to the fluid jet.
Taking into account the consistency of mass of the liquid flow rate and neglecting the friction hydraulic resistance the Weisbach formula can be used for the determination of local loss [6-7]
∆p = ξ ,
where ξ – local pressure loss; p - fluid density; v - average speed (as a rule after the pass-through through the local resistance).
The determined theoretical coefficient values of local resistance for a number of cases (sudden contraction, orifice plate, etc.) comply with the test data completely.
For the purpose of adaptation of the calculation procedure of the flow bean autonomous pressure sensors in the arrangements ORZ which make it possible to register pressure in annular space (between the production string and the arrangement ORZ) were installed in the well 6295 of the Priobsk field on 22 June 2008. The pressure in the tubes (before the entry into the flow bean) and the actual flow were determined according to the field geophysical survey. For the complete adaptation of the calculation methodology it is necessary to have statistics of the survey under different conditions.
The largest resistance becomes evident in the case of peg-leg of liquid stream. When using the flow bean where the liquid changes the direction by 90º abruptly after having left the orifice instruments the pressure decrease is 6.29 MPa, then the pressure decreases 3 times like before the exit at an angle of 45º. As a result small changes to the construction of the flow bean were recommended; in particular the directions of the liquid entry and exit out of the flow bean have changed (fig. 4).
Body 1 of the regulating device is connected to the gripping head 2 and the tail 3. The tail 3 contains a gas lens 4. The gripping head 2 and tail 3 have sealing elements 5. The regulating device contains fluid passages, in addition, axial channels 6-8 are connected to side channels 9-11: in the tail are the axial channel 6 and the side channel 9, in the body are the channels 7 and 10 and in the head the channels 8 and 11 correspondingly.
Under the sealing elements and the gas lens is an axial channel which has restrictions 12, 13 by objective reasons. This is related to the fact that it is necessary to have space groove with some deepness for fastening of sealing rings 5 and a cementing collar of the gas lens 4.
For the reduction of resistance from restriction and the increase of its throughput capacity at the entry of restriction 14, 16 and exit of the restriction 15, 17 bevelled flowing wills 14-17 are installed which make it possible to minimise the internal hydraulic resistance what increases the throughput capacity, reduces the flow bean effect as well as the running time, reduces significant corrosion in the restriction zone.
The use of the recommended flow bean construction under equal conditions makes it possible
Fig. 4. Construction of a double-sided flow bean taking into consideration the integrated rework
to increase the liquid flow rate through the flow bean to 30-35% at the expense of loss reduction by overcoming the hydraulic resistance.
Another improvement direction of the arrangement ORZ is data acquisition from geophysical sensors on a real-time basis (see fig. 1). This project was initiated within the scope of the established working group Systems of New Technologies in the OAO HK "Rosneft". The introduced technologies ORZ in two layers and more than one well and with one downhole equipment has no analogue in the domestic and foreign oilfield practice. This work is carried out in wells with an internal diameter of the production string of 146 mm. The whole downhole equipment is drained of in one run.
At the moment at OOO "RN-Yuganskneftegaz" operations of the first stage of ORZ are carried out on the Priobsk field in the wells 8709/2016 and 7730/201a. The main tasks which will be decided during the performance of work are: lowering of the multi-packer section arrangement with sensors (p, T) in one run; acquisition of geophysical data (p, T) on a real-time basis; inspection of reliability of the entire system; detection and prevention of risks; transition to the final stage of "intellectualisation" of ORZ (fig. 5).
The stage-by stage approach of the operations is defined by the complexity of the operations to be carried out and the degree of intellectualisation of the well.
1. The current development state of the majority of multilayer fields is characterised by the ever-increasing demand for the use of technologies which make it to maintain separate account of products to be lifted and to be injected.
2. The improvement of technology ORZ is based on the creation of tandem of the existing technologies of geophysical control of layer parameters and the mathematical devices of calculation of hydrodynamic processes taking place at the boundary of well - layer.
3. The changes to the existing arrangement must relate to all elements of the system ORZ. At OOO "RN-Yuganskneftegaz" in association with OOO NPO "Novye Heftyanye Tekhnologii" a flow bean was developed which makes it possible to increase the flow rate to 30-35% in comparison to the flow beans used today.
4. Calculation methodology of the liquid flow rate according to the differential pressure is being developed jointly. According to the results of the collection of statistical material it is planned to develop a software product which makes it possible to carry out operational supervision of the flow bean operation without the involvement of geophysics.
5. At the moment operations are being carried out in the wells of Priobsk field. The performance of operations concerning the technological advancement of ORZ is divided in stages which are defined by the complexity of operations to be carried out and the degree of intellectualisation of the well.
6. A judgement must be passed on the economic efficiency of the implementation of the improved arrangement ORZ on the basis of the whole "life" cycle of the well.
Fig. 5. Transmitted-data circuit
However, the main effect of the project is linked to the raise of the coefficient of oil recovery to the expense of isolation of zones or intervals with harsh water breakthroughs.
7. The improvement of the technology ORZ is a relative recent trend both in Russia and abroad (in our situation in columns of 146 mm) due to lack of experience with the use of technology under real conditions. Therefore for this direction a more deepened approach is necessary in order to become an effective instrument concerning the control of water flood at multilayer fields. OOO "RN-Yuganskneftegaz" makes preparation for an adaptation of technology for two layer wells ("annular tube") which enable to maintain accounts of injected liquid immediately from the collar.
8. The improvement of technology ORZ is one step of the development of intellectualisation of oil production and differentiated water injection into heterogeneous geological objects. The company "Rosneft" is engaged in this at the moment.
List of references
1. Leonov V.A., Sharifov M.Z., Garinov O.M. ORRNEO Technology (Single Commingle Development of Several Production Zones) Introduction Experience on Oil Fields in Western Siberia/OOO NII "SibGeoTech"// SPE-104338
2. Lukyanov E.E., Kayurov K.N. Operation intellectualisation of injection and exploitation wells when using multi-packer arrangements for simultaneous injection and exploitation on multilayer wells//Karotazhnik. 2005. - No. 5. - p. 270-275.
3. GOST 8.586.1-2005 (ISO 5167-1:2003). Measurement of liquids and gases flow rate and quantity by means of orifice instruments. Part 1.
4. GOST 8.586.2-2005 (ISO 5167-2:2003). Measurement of liquids and gases flow rate and quantity by means of orifice instruments. Part 2.
5. GOST 8.586.4-2005 (ISO 5167-4:2003). Measurement of liquids and gases flow rate and quantity by means of orifice instruments. Part 4.
6. Rabinovich E.Z., Evgenyevich A.E., Hydraulics: 3rd ed. revised and amended. M.: Nedra, 1987. - 224 p.
7. Altshul A.D. Hydraulic resistance: 2nd ed. revised and amended. M.: Nedra, 1982. - 224 p.14:28 2 Comments
The Influence of Surface Temperatures on Source Rock Maturity to Aid Hydrocarbon Discovery
S. Nelskamp, T. Donders, J.-D. van Wees, O. Abbink
In September 2004, the first-ever drilling of the Lomonosov Ridge (Arctic Coring Expedition, ACEX, or IODP Expedition 302, Fig. 1a) recovered unprecedented sedimentary records of the central Arctic Ocean spanning the past - 56 Ma. With paleontological and geochemical techniques it has been possible to document the long-term development of the central Arctic for the first time. The environmental setting and paleo-climatic evolution turn out very different from that expected prior to the drilling operation. With the help of the new paleo-climatic evolution a tectonic paleo-heat flow prediction of the Kara Sea area was performed to show the influence of paleo-temperatures on the temperature and maturity history of that region.
The West Siberian Basin is one of the largest intra-cratonic basins of the world and is also the richest petroleum province of Russia. It covers an area of approximately 2.2 million km2 and is situated between latitude 55 and 75. In order to study the effect of surface temperatures on the maturity of the source rock, a synthetic well in the northern part of the basin, the Kara Sea (Fig. 1a) was created and modeled with 5 different surface temperature curves from different sources. Surface temperature evolution coupled with basin evolution processes determines the geothermal and associated maturity evolution.
To predict geothermal and maturity evolution, a recently developed coupled lithosphere and basin thermal model has been used (PetroProb, Van Wees et al., 2009). PetroProb is capable of calculating tectonic basement heat flows, incorporating a variety of tectonic scenarios (including rifting, underplating, mantle upwelling), and capable of including feedback effects of sedimentation and surface temperature variation on basement heat flow and basin temperatures. The model inverts burial histories, calibrated to temperature and maturity data. Calibration and sensitivity analysis are done through Monte Carlo sampling analysis using an experimental design technique for computational efficiency.
Palynological analyses were used for deriving sediment ages, especially the remains of dinoflagellate cysts (dinocysts) and diatoms were keys in providing a stratigraphic framework. Both dinocysts and terrestrial plants remains (mainly pollen and spores) provide important information on the paleo-climatic evolution of the basin. These analyses are complemented by organic geochemical data that provide origin and (isotopic) composition of organic matter in the sediments. We further employed the newly developed paleo-thermometer TEX86', which is based on the relative distribution of crenarchaeotal membrane lipids (Schouten et al., 2002). Calibration of the TEX86' is based on 104 marine surface sediments and found to correlate very well with annual mean SST: TEX86' = 0.016 x SST + 0.20 with R2 = 0.93. This equation was used to convert TEX'86 into SST.
In petroleum systems modeling the calculation of the maturity of a source rock is mainly dependent on the basal heat flow, the sediment water interface temperature (SWIT), the thermal conductivity and the radiogenic heat production of the rocks in the system. The latter two parameters are usually defined by the used lithologies while the first two are considered user input. With our setup we want to stress the importance of good constraints on these values.
A detailed analysis of palynological proxies leads to a detailed surface temperature curve which can be used as input data for the SWIT curve in petroleum systems modeling. The analysis of the newly acquired data from the arctic at latitude 85 have revealed the successful recovery of the Paleocene - Eocene transition, with the occurrence of an Apectodinium augustum acme and a prominent, 6‰ drop in stable carbon isotopes of bulk organic carbon (d13C TOC) at the Paleocene Eocene Thermal Maximum (PETM) some 55.5 Ma ago (Fig. 1c). This finding contrasts predictions, which had placed the base of the sediment column, above Cretaceous basement, at 50 Ma. During the PETM our dinocyst and TEX86 paleo-thermometer records show combined increased runoff and sea level rise and a subtropical Arctic Ocean, with sea surface temperatures of - 23ºC (Sluijs et al., 2006).
At the early - middle Eocene transition (- 49 Ma) stunning concentrations of remains of the fresh water fern Azolla and freshwater tolerant dinocysts suggest that, at least episodically, completely fresh surface water settings characterized the Arctic Basin (Brinkhuis et al., 2006). During the middle Eocene, shifts in salinity and in ice-rafted debris follow a strong orbital driven cyclical pattern (Sangiorgi et al., 2008a). Moreover, dinocyst stratigraphy was instrumental in recognizing and assessing the - 26 Ma hiatus, which marks the transition from the greenhouse world to the icehouse world (Sangiorgi et al., 2008b). Sediment erosion and/or non-deposition that generated the hiatus were likely due to a progressive shoaling of the Lomonosov Ridge. Above the hiatus, a new Miocene dinocyst genus Arcticacysta (Sangiorgi et al., 2009) and higher than expected sea surface temperatures (15-19ºC) (Sangiorgi et al., 2008b) mark the recovery of sedimentation on the Lomonosov Ridge near the Miocene Climatic Optimum. The Neogene record has relatively low sedimentation rates and perennial glacial conditions starting from 14 Ma, after which the late Pliocene marked the start of continuous glaciation.
Figure 1: A) Arctic Ocean map (modified from International Bathymetric Chart of the Arctic Ocean, Jakobsson et al., 2000), with indication of the Arctic sub-basins and ridges: AR, Alpha Ridge; FS, Fram Strait; GR, Gakkel Ridge; KS, Kara Sea; LR, Lomonosov Ridge; MR, Mendeleev Ridge; MB, Makarov Basin; NB, Nansen Basin; AB, Amundsen Basin; CA, Canada Basin. Star indicates the location of IODP 302 drilling on the LR; B) Location of drilling within the early Eocene paleo-geographical reconstruction of the Arctic Ocean (Brinkhuis et al., 2006) TO, Tethyan Ocean; P-AO, Proto-Atlantic Ocean; NS, North Sea; C) ACEX age model (modified from Backman et al., 2008) with indication of the Lithologic Units (Lith. Unit) and sub-units (Expedition 302 Scientists, 2006). Pictures of the dinoflagellate cysts Apectodinium augustum (1), Phthanoperidinium clithridium (3), Arcticacysta backmanii (4), A. moraniae (5) and the remains of Azolla (2) used as biostratigraphical markers are also shown. The palynological events considered in building the age model in the early Cenozoic are: Last Occurrence (LO) of A. augustum (F), LO of Azolla (E), Last Abundant Occurrence of P. clithridium (D) and the mid point of the Burdigalian stage where A. backmanii and A. moraniae occur (C). The oldest identified paleomagnetic chron datum (top of magnetochron C25n, Chron C25n), (G) deepest Berillium-10 samples (B) and top of the section (A) on which the age model is based are also shown. TD: Terminal Depth. Depth scale in meters composite depth (mcd)
The new surface temperature curve from the Lomonosov Ridge was compared to surface temperatures generated from PetroMod® of IES/Schlumberger for the Eurasian arctic at latitude 72 (Hantschel and Kauerauf, 2009), to data extracted from PetroMod® from a constant latitude of 85 through time and to two surface temperature curves generated from the newly acquired but corrected for the shift of latitude of the study area through time with a factor of 0.2 and 0.4 per degree latitude (Fig. 2). The new surface temperatures show higher temperatures for the Cretaceous, lower surface temperatures during the Paleogene and drastically higher temperatures during the Miocene.
Fig. 2 Different paleo-surface temperature reconstructions. Donders 85, refers to the Lomonosov ridge at 85 Latitude. Adjusted 0.2 and 0.4 have been corrected from the Lomonosov ridge to Latitude 72 corresponding to the Kara Sea., adopting 0.2 and 0.4 C per degree latitude respectively. PetroMod® paleo-surface temperature using a plate reconstruction for the Kara Sea at 72 Latitude and a Latitude of 85 (Hantschel and Kauerauf, 2009)
These surface temperature curves can be directly imported into PetroProb and are automatically corrected for the water depth to generate the correct sediment water interface temperature (SWIT).
The tectonic heat flow model uses 1D wells or 3D depth maps as input for modeling of tectonic subsidence. Further input is water depth evolution of the study area, the sediment composition, lithospheric parameters such as initial thickness and surface temperature. The heat flow is calculated by matching a calculated tectonic subsidence curve to the observed curve from the input data using user defined rift phases in agreement with with tectonic interpretation. Based on the calculated tectonic subsidence curve a heat flow curve is calculated.
In our case study in the Kara Sea, we defined a two stage rift event influencing the tectonic evolution of the area. According to many studies (e.g. Nikishin et al., 2002; Saunders et al., 2005), a rifting event in the Late Permian to Triassic created the West Siberian Basin. The beginning and the maximum duration of rifting is still under discussion. According to Nikishin et al. (2002) the rift event was no longer than 10 Ma while Saunders et al. (2005) argue that the oldest sediments onlapping on the footwalls of the rift faults are around 165 Ma old; the rifting therefore could have lasted up to 85 Ma. Still, modeling the tectonic subsidence with one rift phase lasting from 250 to 165 Ma does not explain the increased subsidence rate after 165 Ma (Fig. 3). Saunders et al. (2005) therefore propose that the main rift phase, accompanied by a mantle plume, lasted only a short while but afterwards the tectonic subsidence due to thermal cooling was inhibited by the mantle plume until approximately 190 Ma. The results shown in figure 3 were achieved by adapting this assumption to the model.
Fig. 3 Observed and modeled tectonic subsidence curve, paleo-water depth curve and resulting paleo-heat flow curve. The two stage rifting event is marked by significant mantle upwelling, characterized by subcrustal stretching values (a) in excess of crustal stretching (b).
This tectonic model was then calculated with different surface temperature curves and the resulting maturity for the source rock was compared. The results from the models show that the Cenozoic surface temperature evolution has a big effect on the source rock maturity. During the Paleogene the new unadjusted surface temperature has maturities in the same range as the PetroMod® curve for latitude 85. The maturity increases drastically in the Early Miocene to show present-day maturities in the same range as the PetroMod® curve for latitude 72. The maturities of the adjusted surface temperature curves have even higher maturities compared to the PetroMod® curves. This difference can have a noticeable influence on the timing of generation and trapping of hydrocarbons.
Fig. 4 Maturity of the top of the source rock interval in the Kara Sea region for the different surface temperature reconstructions (see Fig. 2 for explanation)
The recent ACEX data complement earlier paleobotanical "snapshots" into Neogene development of the Arctic. Plant macrofossils have for years been the only source of inflormation on the paleo-climatic evolution available to researchers, but data have been very limited in terms of stratigraphic range. The new ACEX data as well as recent studies from the Norwegian Sea (Eldrett et al., 2009) and Alpha ridge (Jenkyns et al., 2004) now extend the paleo-climate record further back into the Paleogene and even upper Cretaceous, revealing a warm wet greenhouse world which extended even to the high Arctic. Only the last 14 million years show the persistent influence of glacial conditions.
The modeled differences between the surface temperatures extracted from PetroMod® to the newly acquired, result in lower maturities during the Paleogene but a drastic increase in maturity during the Miocene. Oil and gas generation will be influenced by this. Slow but steady generation during the Cenozoic prevails in the models with the PetroMod® surface temperature curve while rapid generation in the Miocene can be seen in the models with the new surface temperatures. Depending of the timing of the trap formation this can result in either more or less trapped hydrocarbons.
A detailed study of paleo-surface temperatures and tectonic paleo-heat flow can have a huge impact on the modeled source rock maturity and on the timing of generation. Especially in frontier areas where the quality of a source rock is not yet known, it is, therefore, crucial to get a good understanding of the paleo-surface temperature evolution. But, also, in well-studied basins, an analysis of the paleo-surface temperatures can lead to a reevaluation of regions previously considered under- or over-mature and, therefore, deemed unprospective.
Backman, J., Moran, K., McInroy, D., Mayer, L. A., Expedition 302 Scientists (2006). Proceedings of the Integrated Ocean Drilling Program, 302, Edinburgh (Integrated Ocean Drilling Program Management International, Inc.), 302, doi:10.2204/iodp.proc.302.2006
Backman, J. et al. (2008) Age Model and Core-Seismic Integration for the Cenozoic ACEX Sediments from the Lomonosov Ridge, Paleoceanography, 23: PA1S03.
Brinkhuis, H. et al. (2006) Episodic fresh surface water in the Eocene Arctic Ocean, Nature, 441: 606 - 609.
Eldrett, J. S., Greenwood, D. R., Harding I. C., Huber, M. (2009) Increased seasonality through the Eocene to Oligocene transition in northern high latitudes, Nature, 459: 969-974.
Jakobsson, M., Cherkis, N. Z., Woodward, J., Macnab, R., Coakley, B. (2000) A new grid of Arctic bathymetry: A significant resource for scientists and mapmakers. Eos 81(9): 89, 93, 96.
Jenkyns, H. C., Forster, A., Schouten S., Sinninghe Damste, J. S. (2004) High temperatures in the Late Cretaceous Arctic Ocean, Nature, 432: 888-892.
Nikishin, A.M., Ziegler, P.A., Abbott, D., Brunet, M.-F., Cloetingh, S. (2001) Permo-Triassic intraplate magmatism and rifting in Eurasia: implications for mantle plumes and mantle dynamics. Tectonophysics 351: 3-39.
Sangiorgi, F., van Soelen, E. E., Spofforth, D. J. A., Pälike, H., Stickley, C. E., St. John, K., Koç, N., Schouten, S., Sinninghe Damste, J. S., Brinkhuis, H. (2008a) Cyclicity in the middle Eocene central Arctic Ocean sediment record: Orbital forcing and environmental response, Paleoceanography, 23: PA1S08
Sangiorgi, F., Brumsack, H., Willard, D. A., Schouten, S., Stickley, C. E., O'Regan, M., Reichart, G., Sinninghe Damste, J. S., Brinkhuis, H. (2008b) A 26 million year gap in the central Arctic record at the greenhouse-icehouse transition: Looking for clues, Paleoceanography, 23: PA1S04
Sangiorgi F., Brinkhuis H., Pierce Damassa, S. (2009) Arcticacysta: A new organic-walled dinoflagellate cyst genus from the early Miocene? of the central Arctic Ocean, Micropaleontology 55 (23): 249-258..
Saunders, A.D., England, R.W., Reichow, M.K., White, R.V. (2005) A mantle plume origin for the Siberian traps: uplift and extension in the West Siberian Basin, Russia. Lithos 79: 407-424.
Schouten, S., Hopmans, E.C., Schefub E., Sinninghe Damste, J.S. (2002) Distributional variations in marine crenarchaeotal membrane lipids: a new organic proxy for reconstructing ancient sea water temperatures?, Earth Planet. Sci. Lett. 204: 265-274.
Sluijs, A. et al. (2006) Subtropical Arctic Ocean temperatures during the Palaeocene/Eocene thermal maximum, Nature, 441, 610– 613.
Hantschel, T., Kauerauf, A.I. (2009) Fundamentals of Basin Petroleum Systems Modeling. Springer, 476 p. DOI 10.1007/978-3-540-72318-9
Van Wees, J.D.,Van Bergen, F., David, P., Nepveu, M., Beekman, F., Cloetingh, S. (2009) Probabilistic Tectonic heat flow modelling for basin maturation: method and applications. Journal of Marine and Petroleum 26, 536–551 Geology. DOI 10.1016/j.marpetgeo.2009.01.020.12:30 0 Comments